a.Define the meaning of capitalism in terms of the relations of production and the forces of production. Where does profit come from under capitalism?
Regardless the fact that the Western world did not follow the rules and economic rules created by the theorists of economy, philosophy and sociology. The theory composed by Marx and Engels includes a certain number of terms, strategies, and laws which are called to stimulate and distribute the economic benefits all over the various aspects of the country's activities. The key idea of the theory by Marx and Engels consists in sustaining of the balance between expenses and benefits of the overall country's functioning.
The term of capitalism in the perspective of the production and its functions is explained as the system of social and economic relations whose basis is focused on the prevalence of the private sector which is on the means of production. In capitalism, the profit mainly comes from the assets and outcome of the production an organization exercises and from the flow of money which is proper to the organization in general.
The attitude toward the relations of production which Marx and Engels expressed consists in the fact that the social interaction has to be the mostly developed. It means that the participation in the social process is, certainly, volunteer, however, the best method to get the organization developing is the fact of everybody's (or at least the majority) participation in the social processes. In other words, capitalism in these regards is frequently represented as a system geared to the maximizing of surplus value through intense-and ever-intensifying-exploitation of labor power to the utmost extent.
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b. How do capitalist relations of production first advance the forces of production and then, fetter their further development as a consequence of economic crises?
The forces of production under the conditions of the capitalism are directed by several factors which determine the success. Firstly, they are caused by the own history of people and their desire and possibility to work. Thus, the authors refer this principle to as the historic compound.
Another factor which contributes to the forces of production and determines them is the level of slavery. By this, the authors understand the ability of the upper class to control and regulate the relations between the necessary amount of workforce with the expected outcomes of work. In other words, this compound of the forces of production is tightly related to the first aspect in terms by the quantitative approach to the working process and its results.
The third compound of the forces of production is the unity of the three aims which are the modes of production, appropriation, and exchange with the socialised character of the means of production. It presupposes the ability of the organizations' directors to govern the employees in the way which would serve, on the one hand, as the stimulus; on the other hand, it will have to lead to the successful aims' fulfillment.
As a consequence, the factors which determine the forces of production are interconnected with each other and, in the authors' opinion, are called to contribute to the overall development of the working outcomes. This is of a great importance since it determines the key function of the forces of production: benefit and income.
c. How does class struggle develop into a social revolution that brings about communism and how are the seeds of communism already born within capitalism?
According to the most recent investigations in sociology and political science, the seeds of communism have become more evident in the western understanding of capitalism. This fact has taken place due to the fact that the western culture and the strategies which have been usually do not show the expected outcomes. In addition to this, with the huge development of communism in China, for instance, the economic indexes have grown manifold since its establishment.
The spread of communism was also caused by the more precise investigation of the principles and practices elaborated by Marx and Engels. In the close connection with the results it provides, the interest in such tools of work has grown. The theoretical background of the ideas by Engels and Marx were also researched in order to implement several changes into the classical points of view. This is generally done in order to modify the theory which would be able to function under the conditions of the contemporary society and requirements the organizations are likely to have.
The decisive aspect of the communism birth within the firm structure of capitalism was determined by the constant class struggle. The dislike of the social positioning and separation has led to the assumption that there is a constant need in unifying the laws, rights and responsibilities of people of the same community regardless the position they may occupy in the society. Everybody has to be equal. This idea enchants the population and is likely to substitute capitalism in the future.
d.What are your criticisms of Marx and Engels theory of the rise and fall of capitalism, leading to communism?
Personally, I believe that the reduction of capitalism is likely to bring the best results which presuppose the communication implementation. This, in its turn, is called to appeal the interest to communism and its basis and structure. In addition to this, I have a conviction that the rise and fall of capitalism is inevitable due to the strict class devision of the society. In accordance with Marx and Engels, the disrespect of the current political order can be caused by the dislike of the working conditions and, as a consequence, of the lifestyle.
The capitalism structure of the society contributes to a great extent to enriching of one class while the other classes tend to suffer and work more hard in oder to sustain their usual life conditions. The communism tends to make people and their income equal this is called to reduce the social dislike and rise the respect of authority. In other words, the Marx and Engels idea of the equal income for everybody is called to suppress the social inequality and produce a great tool for motivating the members of society to work. The better conditions of work contribute to the better conditions of life. These two points of the same idea are supposed to serve as a pushing mechanism for the development of the strong and united society which is not that extremely divided into classes. Communism reduces the interclass struggle which is known to bear the negative outcomes which lead to negative social phenomena.