Domestic Terrorism Report

Safety of any given individual, society and the nation as a whole is paramount

The benefits associated with a safe environment cannot be underrated at any cost. Talk of increased productivity that leads to growth of economy, increased foreign investment among many other things. Citizens of any given country can do their daily chores without any fears if told the working environment is safe from terrorism. There are various types of terrorism. Domestic terrorism and international terrorism. Domestic terrorism entails violence that is directed towards the civilian population of a given country. The terrorism can also be directed towards the infrastructure of the country in question. More often, those involved in the terrorist attacks are not always the citizens of the attacked country. Some of reasons that have been thought to be the cause of terrorism includes intention to instill fear through intimidation, coerce or with intent to influence national policy. The essay seeks to address the terrorism by paying particular attention to risk factors that might cause terrorist attacks, there most likelihood of happening and mitigation measures that can be used. The essay will also address ways of being prepared, responding and recovering in case of such terrorism act happening. City hall will be used as the target infrastructure for the said terrorism act.

Because of the strategic location of city hall, many terrorist may choose it as a potential target. In addition, city hall at times hosts a large number of people at ago. As a result, terrorist may easily identify it as a target since they can injure many if they carry out the attack. One way of carrying out the attack can be through the use of improvised explosives (The FBI, 2010). Use of explosive by terrorist can be perceived as an easy option by terrorist. By the virtue that the devices are small and can be hidden makes them to be easily used. Such devices can be so detrimental since they are taken very close if not inside the city hall. The improvised explosive devices may include grenades, and other assembled explosives. The grenades can be carried inside the city hall by the terrorist if told there is a lapse in security check points. Self assembled explosives can also be carried into the city hall by use of personal vehicles. Some terrorist also may opt to carry with them the explosives where they will have the explosives explode killing them also in the process. The use of improvised self explosives on most occasions has been used. One of the reasons for increased use of improvised explosives could be increased ease of carrying them around. Because they are small in nature as compared to other terrorist devices like use of fire arms. This therefore increases the probability of using improvised explosives in carrying out terror attacks. As a result, the criticality of using the improvised explosives also increases. As such, there is need for improve mitigation measures to be put in place to help minimize the damage caused by improvised explosives. One of such measures could be to use bullet resistance materials while constructing the city hall. Such a measure will be of value in helping to reduce the damage caused by improvised explosion devices in case they are launched by terrorist. Assuming the explosive is from outside, the ability of it to penetrate into the hall will be reduced because of the use of bullet proof material. The window panes used should also be bullet resistance. This will be an ideal mitigation measure to help minimize the terrorist attacks. The other option that can help minimize chances of terrorist attack on city hall can be the use of motion sensors. Such mitigation measure can be of great value since the sensors will be able to identify person carrying improvised explosion devices. The sensors have the ability to produce sounds that will alert the security personnel of the presence of an explosion device within the vicinity. Upon identification, the security personnel will then take the necessary measures to prevent the explosion from getting close to the city hall. This will help minimize the incidents of terror attacks in case they are being planned.

Terrorist can also to actively involve themselves in shooting (National Institute of Justice, 2011). At times, terrorist may want to intimidate and instill fear in ordinary citizens. In such a case, they may opt to intrude the city hall and start shooting aimlessly. Another possible way can be such terrorists to aim from a specific place from outside the city hall. With such endeavors, they will end up shooting their targets. The probability of terrorists involving themselves in active shooting is also high. Assessing such option critically in addition is so viable. Therefore there is need for security agency to put in place measures that will help prevent such occurrence. One of the mitigation measures may include security personnel placing metal detectors in different places around the city hall. Metal detectors will be of value since they will help in detecting any firearm that might be within a given radius. This will prompt the security agency to take necessary measures that will include looking for ways of disarming the terrorists before they attack. Having several securities check ups within the surrounding of the city hall can help in identifying of firearms. Such check points will help in identifying and confiscating guns that maybe are planned to be used in carrying out attack on the city hall. Use of CCTV cameras is of great value in identifying people with ill-motives (Samdura, 1996). People behaving in a suspicious way can easily be tracked down from the CCTV footage and necessary actions taken. Such action may include interviewing them by the intelligence agency. Confiscating the firearms can also be done since in case they are hidden anywhere that was recorded in the CCTV footage, they can be easily identified. The other possible way of mitigating the use of active firearms could be building the city hall with bullet proof materials. Use of level 4 glass bullet resistance material can also be of value. This will prevent the bullets from penetrating the city hall in case a lone ranger decides to shoot from outside the hall. The management of city hall can also opt to install double looks and conduct drills semi-annually. Such a measure can be used as one way of mitigating the idea of active shooter. The above discussed mitigation measures once put in place can help in reducing terrorism acts as a result of active shooters.

Kidnapping of employees working in the city hall is also a possible way that can be used by terrorist to carry out their activities. Kidnapping involves workers being held ransom by terrorist (Jerome, 2013). They kidnapped people will then be used as baits for the terrorist to demand favors from the government. In addition, the terrorists may also demand a certain amount of money to be paid by the families of the kidnapped. The other way that may make terrorist kidnap innocent citizens could be in exchange of certain demands. They may opt to demand the government to release maybe some of their friends who are under the custody of the government. Upon the release of their friends, they will also release the kidnapped individuals. The probability of kidnapping being used by terrorist is high though slightly below active shooting and use of improvised explosives. Critical analysis of the probability of such an incident happening is also very possible. Therefore there is need for the security agency to put in place the necessary measures that will help minimize incidents of kidnapping. Such mitigation measures will include factors such as giving continuous updates to employees concerning the terrorist threats. Employees need to be educated about ways of identifying suspicious people within the city hall and reporting them to security personnel (Jerome, 2013). Employees should also be educated to be cautious when interacting with people they know little about. Employees should avoid walking alone but instead advised to be walking in groups to minimize chances of kidnapping. Besides, there is a need for the city hall management to increase security checks especially at the entrance. This will help in preventing kidnappers from getting access to the hall to carry out their kidnapping mission. There is also need to upgrade the surveillance monitoring system. This will ensure people who appear suspicious can be identified and necessary action taken. This will help in minimizing entrance of terrorist in the city hall. As a result, cases of kidnapping will be reduced if not eliminated completely. The security personnel should also establish a standoff distance beyond which nobody will be allowed. This will help in minimizing cases of kidnapping. Other possible mitigation measures that can be used in curbing kidnapping menace may include providing TNG and enhancing QRF weapon system and protection gears. If the above stated mitigations measures are fully implemented, they will help in reducing the incidences of terrorists’ kidnappings.

Cyber terrorism has also become an avenue for most terrorists (Home Land Security News Wire, 2010). Terrorist hacks into the system of any their target. Once they hack into the system, they then get access to critical information that they can use to carry out their terrorism acts. For instance, in the case of our target, that is, the city hall, if terrorist get a chance to hack into their system, they will be able to understand all of its daily operations. Terrorist attacks can then be carried out with ease since the whole system is understood. Though the probability of cyber hacking as an act of terrorism is low, it is still an avenue for terrorist attack. For city hall to avoid such there is need for it to upgrade the computer system to minimize incidences of hacking into the system. The management should always make sure that it logs out from any login it makes in the cyber. Besides, a strong password needs to be used where both numbers and letters are mixed. Such will help in reducing the chances of hacking by terrorist. There is also need for the management to continuously change its internet setting anytime it suspects of an attempted access to its database. Such actions will be helpful in reducing the chances of terrorists hacking into the city halls database. Some sites have internet security programs that always warn in case of an attempt to hack into the system. Such will be helpful in reducing the incidences of cyber terrorism.

With the ever increasing ways of minimizing terrorist activities, terrorist also devise ways that they can use to carry out their activities

The use of biological means as a potential threat to the safety of city hall by terrorist cannot be ignored (Homeland Security, 2011). Though the probability of using such a tool by terrorist is real. Terrorist may opt to use poisonous gases that once inhaled impair ones judgment. Anthrax is the commonly used powder that is known to cause mass damage once inhaled. Therefore terrorist may opt to spray the city hall with anthrax. Upon inhalation by people will lead to deaths. Though critically, the feasibility of such a course being taken by terrorist is minimal, at times it can happen.  Basing on such, there is need for the city hall management and other security stake holders to improvise ways of dealing with such a menace. One way of identifying anthrax threat is the provision of emergency identification (The FBI, 2010). The security personnel should be able to teach the concerned people on identifying the suspicious mails. Such mails considered to be having anthrax should be opened in an open place where the experts are available. Before opening, there is need to call a group of medical attendants in case the unexpected happens. The security personnel should provide the necessary information that will enable one to identify any suspicious mail. In case it happens that the anthrax spills in the city hall, efforts should be aimed at containing the spread to other parts. One way of making sure the anthrax virus is contained is to close all the available ventilations. This attempt will limit the spread of anthrax to other places that it has not yet reached. Besides, air handling system should be turned down. Such an action will help in preventing the continuous circulation of anthrax to other parts with fresh air.

In summary, city hall was identified as the most likely target for terrorism. Terrorist on most occasions will target a busy place where they intent to hurt more people. The most likely ways that can be used to propagate the heinous acts includes the use of improvised explosives devices, active shooters, kidnapping and cyber terrorism. Improved security check up points will help in minimizing the above threats. Explosive devices can be mitigated by use of explosive detectors among other discussed ways. Kidnapping can be minimized by ensuring people getting in and out of the city are scrutinized. Constructing the city hall lining with bullet proof material can be used to reduce the threats posed by active shooters. In general, every individual should be involved in ensuring his/her security. It should not be left only to security personnel.

REFERENCES

  1. Homeland Security. (2011). Preventing terrorism and enhancing security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/preventing-terrorism-and-enhancing-security
  2. Homeland Security Newswire. (2010, august 10.). Domestic terrorism by members of extremist Group a serious threat to the FBI
  3. Jerome. P.B. (2013, January 17). The domestic terrorist threat: background and issues of threat. Retrieved from, www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/R42536.pdf
  4. National Institute of Justice. (2011). Terrorism. Retrieved from, http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/terrorism/Pages/welcome.aspx
  5. Samdrula, Ram. (1996). The solution to terrorism problems. Retrieved from, http://www.ram.org/ramblings/philosophy/terrorism.html
  6. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010). It’s our top priority-protecting US from terrorists. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism

APPENDIX A.

Security Assessment: City Hall

 

 

 

THREAT

 

 

 

RISK

 

COUNTERMEASURE

Probability

Criticality

Total

Improvised Explosive Device

 

6/10

 

8/10

 

14/20

  • Bullet resistance/proof Glass. Level 4 glass bullet resistance, coverage
  • Motion sensor

        Required 4 one

      for each apex

 

Active Shooter

 

5/10

 

8/10

 

13/20

  • Metal detectors in placed and random checks. Installed in 3 access control points
  • Install double looks and conduct drills semi-annually.
  • CCTV with monitoring platform

Level 4 glass bullet resistance,

 

Kidnappings

 

4/10

 

7/10

 

11/20

  • Provide TNG and updated threat brief to employees.
  • Upgraded surveillance monitoring platform
  • QRF enhanced weapons system and protection gear.
  • Additional security guards required at every entrance.
  • Establish a standoff distance.

 

Cyber terrorism

 

3/10

 

7/10

 

10/20

·         Upgrade computer security software to prevent hacking.

·         Change the network

configuration once you identify an attack.

·         Examine systems and check logs to help in spotting and finding an intruder.

 

 

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May 29, 2018 in Law
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